The Bull Ring is the historic markets area and centuries old heart of Birmingham. The area suffered from heavy bomb damage during the World War II Blitz and was marked for comprehensive redevelopment during the 1960s, sweeping away fine grained urban streetscapes that had grown up over centuries. Developers and the city council talked at the time of bringing the city into the modern world. Its replacement, the much derided Bull Ring Shopping Centre only lasted 40 years. It was bulldozed in 2000 leaving only the iconic Rotunda as testament to the 1960s developments.